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ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)


ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that significantly interfere with daily functioning or development. ADHD is typically diagnosed in childhood, but its impact can extend into adolescence and adulthood. It is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in children.

There are three main subtypes of ADHD, based on the predominant symptoms:

Predominantly Inattentive Presentation:

Individuals with this subtype primarily struggle with inattention. They may have difficulty sustaining attention, organizing tasks, following through on assignments, and may be easily distracted.

Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation:

Individuals with this subtype primarily display hyperactivity and impulsivity. They may be fidgety, have difficulty staying seated, talk excessively, and act without thinking about consequences.

Combined Presentation:

This subtype involves a combination of both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. It is the most common presentation in individuals diagnosed with ADHD.

Key features of ADHD include:


Difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities.

Frequent careless mistakes due to lack of attention to detail.

Forgetfulness in daily activities.

Easily distracted by unrelated stimuli.

Difficulty organizing tasks and activities.


Excessive fidgeting, restlessness, or squirming.

Difficulty remaining seated in situations where it is expected.

Running or climbing in inappropriate situations.

Inability to play or engage in activities quietly.


Impulsive behaviors without considering consequences.

Difficulty waiting for one’s turn.

Interrupting others in conversations or games.

Difficulty inhibiting immediate responses.

Impact on Daily Functioning:

ADHD symptoms should significantly impair social, academic, or occupational functioning. They often lead to challenges in relationships, academic performance, and daily tasks.

It’s important to note that everyone may display inattentive, hyperactive, or impulsive behaviors at times. However, in individuals with ADHD, these behaviors are more severe, frequent, and persistent, and they interfere with daily life.

The exact cause of ADHD is not fully understood, but a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurological factors is believed to contribute. Factors such as family history, prenatal exposure to substances, premature birth, and brain injuries may increase the risk of ADHD.

Treatment for ADHD typically involves a multimodal approach, including:

Behavioral Therapy: This includes strategies to address specific behaviors, develop organizational skills, and improve social interactions.

Educational Interventions: Classroom accommodations and support can help individuals with ADHD succeed academically.

Medication: Stimulant medications (e.g., methylphenidate, amphetamine) and non-stimulant medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms. The choice of medication depends on individual needs and response.

Parent Training: Parents can learn strategies to manage and support their child’s behavior effectively.

ADHD is a lifelong condition, but with appropriate management and support, individuals with ADHD can lead successful and fulfilling lives. Early intervention and a collaborative approach involving healthcare professionals, educators, and families are key to addressing the challenges associated with ADHD.

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